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Ohio University Bulletin. 



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Ohio University Bulletin. 



Volume II. 



ATHENS, OHIO, DECEMBER, 1895. 



Number 4. 



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PAGE. 

On the Educational Value of Natural 
Science : Some Notes Condensed and 

Compiled from various Sources, . 3 

Editorial Notes 12 

Personal Notes, 14 

Book Notices 14 

ON THE EDUCATIONAL VALUE OF NATU= 
RAL SCIENCE : SOME NOTES CON- 
DENSED AND COMPILED FROM 
VARIOUS SOURCES. 



BY WALKER BOWMAN. 



Such subjects as Botany, Zoology, Phys- 
ics and Chemistry — Natural Sciences — 
have now taken a firm hold upon the 
system of education in this country as 
well as elsewhere. In fact, be it said to 
the honor of our clearsighted and far- 
sighted pedagogical leaders, some of the 
first efforts to introduce a study of the 
Natural Sciences into the common school 
system, particularly the elementary por- 
tion of it, were made in the United States. 
However this may be, the importance of 
teaching the Natural Sciences to the ris- 
ing generation is, at the present day, so 
universally acknowledged, that we are 
filled with wonder when we reflect that 
only a few decades ago they were looked 
upon by many — especially by education- 
ists — with disdain, not being considered 
worthy even to appear upon a school pro- 
gramme. At that time the belief was 
general that the dead languages alone 
possessed a real disciplinary and educa- 
tional value. The study of natural objects 
or of the operations of the forces of 
Nature could, from the standpoint of that 
period, lead to no good results ; and the 
branches dealing with such subject-matter 
if pursued at all in the schools, should be 
cultivated only by specialists, who must 



of necessity have a knowledge of one or 
more of the Natural Sciences for the 
practice of their professions. But as for 
their being useful in developing the fac- 
ulties of pupils in general — why, the mere 
idea was scouted. The following passage 
by a writer of the third decade of this 
century will give an insight into the state 
of feeling on this question : "The study 
of crude matter does not give the mind 
the proper exercise to enable it to appre- 
hend the invisble, nay, not even to 
comprehend the visible. The earth and 
natural phenomena are much too near the 
pupil to give his mind nourishment. The 
only thing in them worth seeing is the 
invisible, but the mind's eye cannot see 
the invisible unless it has already been 
trained by means of ideas. Hence, in- 
struction in these subjects does not assist 
in grasping ideas, but still further blunts 
the mental vision." Similar arguments 
are used even at the present day against 
an extension of nature study in the school 
course. But they are wide of the mark. 
Such a view of the study of Natural 
Science is as distorted and prejudiced as 
were the opinions of the old Greeks 
touching the same question. Xenophon, 
reflecting the attitude of the masses, says, 
"Such things — the movements of the 
heavenly bodies, their distance from the 
earth, etc. — will always remain a secret. 
Nay, more, it cannot be otherwise than 
displeasing to the gods, when we seek to 
discover what they have so carefully hid- 
den." The standpoint is as dogmatic in 
the one case as in the other. 

During the present century, however, a 
great change in educational matters has 
taken place, which has resulted in break- 
ing down the "tyranny of the dead lan- 
guages," and in establishing the value of 
nature studies (as well as that of historical 
and social studies) for training the mental 
faculties. The amount of Latin and 
Greek required for graduation and con- 
sidered necessary for a liberal education, 
has been gradually growing less. In some 
places Greek has practically disappeared 
from the school programme, while Latin 
has been tolerated and retained more put 



OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. 



of deference to an established system and 
on account of its " long domination " than 
from a conviction of its superior claims 
and merits. Mathematics has maintained 
its position, and no doubt will always hold 
high rank on account of the value both 
of mathematical knowledge and of math- 
ematical training. Nature studies, on the 
other hand, have been constantly growing 
in favor. From holding a most subordi- 
nate position, they have now come to 
compete — if such an expression be ad- 
missible — with the dead languages and 
mathematics as means of mental disci- 
pline. From being bundled together and 
being looked upon as a single subject, to 
be taught by a single instructor, they have 
come to demand and to receive separate 
treatment for each branch. And looking 
beyond the present into the future, it 
seems probable they will continue to grow 
in popularity and to occupy more and 
more space upon the school programme. 
It is unfortunate that classical or other 
studies and the Natural Sciences should 
be, or ever should have been, in any sense 
arrayed against each other, and spoken of 
as if they were inherently antagonistic. 
All branches, whatsoever, of human knowl- 
edge treated in the schools are primarily 
to be considered merely as means to an 
end, as only so many different roads lead- 
ing to the same goal — the training of 
pupils to be useful members of society. 
Basing our procedure upon the pedagog- 
ical principal that individuals differ in 
mental endowments in kind as well as in 
quantity, and that such differences should 
have due weight in deciding upon the 
means best adapted to develop the men- 
tal faculties, the proper course to pursue 
seems plain. When a pupil's bent is such 
that a study of the classics will best de- 
velop his powers, then Latin and Greek 
should undoubtedly form a large part of 
his mental pabulum. But when his tastes 
and inclinations point in some other di- 
rection, then it seems equall)' plain that 
Latin and Greek should not be forced 
down his throat regardless of the nausea 
to which they must give rise. Without 
substituting analogy for fact, which, as 
Sir Humphrey Davy has remarked, is the 
bane of some philosophies, we may, in 
this general way, compare dietaries for 
the body with those designed for the 
mind. The same general principles apply 
to each class. The food should be plain, 
not too highly seasoned and of a mixed 



character. Some constitutions thrive best 
on a diet in which meat is prominent, 
others when fruit and vegetables form the 
staple. Similarly, some minds develop 
best when exercised with linguistic stud- 
ies, others when directed to historical or 
other studies. To anyone who has thought 
upon the subject, it must seem perfectly 
clear that pupils should not be made to 
fit into a Procrustean system. The gen- 
eral extension of the elective system of 
courses and studies is evidence -that this 
principle is pretty well recognized amongst 
educationists. It is doubtful, however, if 
its action has anywhere been fully tested. 
Its application, indeed, is most restricted 
just where it would probably produce the 
best results — in elementary and secondary 
education. If a wider choice of studies 
prevailed, it can hardly be doubted that 
less time would be given to the classics. 
At all events there are not a few who hold 
that an everyday school ration consisting 
chiefly of Latin and Greek, is too highly 
flavored for the constitutions of most 
pupils. The food should be simple and 
natural, particularly in early life ; and it 
is undeniable that the youthful mind best 
finds such food in a study of the Natural 
Sciences. There was a time, however, 
and that not so long ago, when such a 
proposition as that just stated would have 
been ridiculed. To-day it has advocates 
in every civilized country, and nowhere 
else, perhaps, such warm advocates as in 
the United States. It seems to be only a 
a matter of time for this doctrine to find 
lodgment in the mind of every teacher, 
and to express itself upon every school 
programme. The leavening influence is 
working rapidly, and we may confidently 
look forward to the time when the whole 
will be leavened. 

In thinking upon the comparatively 
short space of time in which the teaching 
of Natural Science has been at all general, 
whereby the school course has been so 
greatly modified and enlarged, one would 
naturally suppose the necessary pro- 
gramme changes must have often been 
premature and subversive. Fortunately, 
such has rarely been the case. The ex- 
clusion of old, and the introduction of new, 
material has in the main been gradual and 
steady, though simply irresistible. Had 
violent and hasty alterations been made, 
we might have better grounds for doubting 
their permanency. But it is not for a mo- 
ment to be supposed that the alleged pre- 



OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. 



tender was permitted to quietly come in 
and peaceably take possession of any part 
of the wellnigh sacred classical and human- 
istic territory, that had so carefully been 
fenced in and guarded. The whole history 
of the Science invasion has been one of 
continual struggle and bitter controversy, 
a veritable "war of words." Every claim 
of birthright was as first denied the in- 
truder, and her tenure of any portion of 
the fair Hellenic and Latin dominions was 
viewed in no higher light than that of 
squatter sovereignty. In order to drive 
out the interloper, every engine in the con- 
troversial armory was brought to bear and 
made to thunder forth anathemas both 
loud and deep — but all in vain. In place 
of retreating, the enemy has steadily ad- 
vanced, though always under protest. 

Of all the ordnance employed to check 
the progress of natural knowledge, there 
is no piece that has so unremittingly been 
kept in operation as that heavy gun, which, 
for the sake of brevity and convenience, 
we may term the "ideal" gun. It has 
been argued from the very first, that the 
ideals of mankind can not withstand the 
blighting influence of a study of Nature. 
And even at the present day, we hear the 
cry raised that our ideals are in danger of 
being submerged in the raging flood of 
natural knowledge and material aims. We 
are told that the signs of the times indi- 
cate that cataclysmal changes are just 
ahead of us ; that in the resulting chaos 
of intellectual motives, we shall be unable 
to recognize those former lofty concep- 
tions that directed our efforts. To ordinary 
minds, the surface indications of such an 
impending calamity are not sufficiently 
plain to cause a panic. As the weight of 
evidence is against catastrophism in the 
physical world, so in the moral and intel- 
lectual worlds we have no sufficient reason 
to expect a break in uniform development. 
The doctrine of evolution, which is con- 
firmed by a study of the phenomena alike 
of physical, mental and moral develop- 
ment, speaks strongly against this ideal 
" war of elements, wreck of matter and 
crash of worlds." We may well ask, is it 
possible to look into the pages of history 
and not be convinced that the moral and 
intellectual level of our own times, con- 
sidered from a general point of view, is 
far above that of any preceding age ? 
Nothing is more certain than that the 
progress of the human race as a whole has 



been continuous, whether we read its 
history in fossil or scrip. 

Meantime the amount of real, natural 
or scientific knowledge goes on increas- 
ing, while material and utilitarian views 
are rapidly spreading ; and yet the world 
continues to grow better, to become a more 
pleasant and profitable place to inhabit. 
Particularly is this true of our own country. 
Practical, material and utilitarian ideas are 
undoubtedly the springs of our action and 
the source of our greatness. In the eyes 
of other nations, "Americanism" has no 
other significance. For this reason we 
have our imitators as well as our detract- 
ors. Twenty years ago a distinguished 
German savant observing with sorrow the 
rapid growth in the Fatherland of Ameri- 
can ideas, or the americanization of Ger- 
man ideals, pleaded most eloquently with 
his countrymen to counteract the poison 
of Americanism by taking larger doses of 
Hellenism. He went so far as to charac- 
terize the former as a veritable Neo-barba- 
rism. It may be remarked, in passing, that 
it must be a potent drug to produce such 
effects and at such long range. On this 
side of the Atlantic, the American type 
of manhood is considered the latest and 
highest product of civilization. 

Have the results obtained from the 
broadening of the educational foundations 
by the introduction of science teaching 
justified the changes made ? We can un- 
hesitatingly reply, they have, in every way, 
despite the fact that the full benefit there- 
from has not yet been gained, and proba- 
bly will not be gained for several decades 
to come. The reason for this will appear 
when we remember that the methods for 
imparting nature instruction are just in 
their infancy, are more or less in a state 
of transition. Scarcely two generations 
of teachers have labored upon this prob- 
lem. No wonder, then, the methods are 
imperfect and in need of further develop- 
ment. They are at a great disadvantage 
in this respect, when compared with the 
methods for giving instruction in the dead 
languages. These are the product of years 
of work and experience. Many genera- 
tions of teachers have labored upon them, 
refining, improving, recasting, so that they 
ought to be as near perfection as anything 
human. Moreover, the teaching force 
available for giving instruction in the 
Natural Sciences has not been adequate 
in numbers or in preparation. In short, 
neither the time nor the opportunities have 



6 



OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. 



yet been sufficient for the complete un- 
folding of the educational value of such 
branches. 

A better understanding of the present 
position of natural science instruction will 
be gained, if we trace, though in broad 
outlines, the history of its introduction 
into the common school system. 

The first decided reaction against the 
exclusive study of the dead languages 
took place in England and France as far 
back as the sixteenth century. It took the 
form of a stand against the purely human- 
istic training and the common depreciation 
of the useful so characteristic of the schol- 
ars of those days. A pupil, it was argued, 
after taking a school course should become 
better fitted for practical life than was the 
case under the existing system. It was 
further urged that there were subjects 
much nearer the living interests and sym- 
pathies of the youth, subjects which had 
more points in common with real life, than 
the dead languages. Montaigne was the 
chief exponent of this view in France. 
That candid and debonair old writer had 
some very clear and, for his times, very 
novel, opinions about educational methods. 
The estimate he put upon the discipline 
of the schools of his day was not high. 
"When the pupil," he said, "comes back 
from school, all that you shall find he has 
got, is that his Latin and Greek have made 
him a greater and more conceited block- 
head than when he went from home." He 
further says that education should' " form 
and mould the pupil not only by words 
and precepts, but chiefly by works and ex- 
amples." He was the first, perhaps, to 
make a plea for modern language study, 
in saying, " I would first understand my 
own language and that of my neighbors, 
with whom most of my business and con- 
versation lies." In short, the tendency of 
his teachings may best be gathered from 
his dictum : " Instruction should make the 
pupil better fitted for everyday life." 

Further, realistic tendencies, as far as 
they existed about the beginning of the 
seventeenth century, received a great im- 
pulse, especially in England, from the em- 
pirical philosophy of Bacon. That great 
thinker saw the true end of knowledge and 
education in the production of useful re- 
sults, that should contribute to the material 
as well as to the moral and intellectual 
improvement of mankind. Such teach- 
ings had, apparently, no immediate effect. 
But a demand soon arose for a contraction 



of the sphere of the dead languages and 
for an extension of that of the study of 
Nature. The philosopher Locke was also 
a prominent advocate of this innovation. 
With characteristic modesty he confesses 
himself contented with being " employed 
as an under-laborer in clearing ground a . 
little, and removing some of the rubbish 
that lies in the way to knowledge." There 
was little doubt concerning what, in his 
opinion, constituted the rubbish. On the 
Continent again, Germany was not to be 
found lagging behind in the general move- 
ment towards the real and natural in edu- 
cation. There, too, a party made itself 
felt, asking that subjects of a more realis- 
tic nature be taught in the schools, and 
pointing out that the exercise of the 
observing faculties should go hand in hand 
with a study of words. The great Come- 
nius declared that, " Men must be induced 
to learn not out of books, but by observing 
the heavens, the Earth, oaks, beeches, etc., 
that is, they must study the things them- 
selves, not simply the accounts of others 
concerning them." He further says, " Let 
nothing be taught except for manifest 
use " ; and again, " Knowledge of things 
close by us should be acquired first, then 
of those farthest off. There is nothing in 
the mind, that has not previously been in 
the senses." Later on, these general prin- 
ciples of pedagogy were further expanded 
by Rousseau, who was among the first to 
recognize in nature studies an important 
means of developing the powers of the 
mind. He says, "As the senses are the 
first faculties to develop, so we should 
strive to perfect them first." The interest, 
moreover, which such men as Goethe and 
von Humboldt took in the study of Nature, 
and their high estimation of its educational 
value, had great influence in arresting the 
attention of educators. 

Though the example and teachings of 
such leaders of thought had great weight, 
there was another factor of even greater 
importance — the views and wishes of the 
general public, or at least of the general 
thinking and progressive public. About 
the beginning of the present century 
people began to recognize that the great 
material improvements of modern times 
were due to the development of the Natu- 
ral Sciences. They believed that it was 
"not by philosophical, but by material, 
research that a great part of mankind had 
been brought to a higher plane of living." 
They acknowledged that it was by mate- 



OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. 



rial research alone that mankind had been 
freed from the intolerance and superstition 
of the past. They clearly saw that the 
great discoveries of modern times, which 
had brought with them so much of good, 
had been effected through the study, not 
of the dead languages, but of Nature and 
of the operations of its forces. Hence 
the Natural Sciences began to be looked 
upon as the basis of the strength of a state, 
and some study of them in the schools was 
demanded as necessary to the public good. 
This movement for reform was aided by 
the meetings of scientific societies and 
congresses, both national and interna- 
tional, having as their aim the progress 
and spread of the Sciences and the increase 
of their applications. On such occasions 
it was strongly urged that for the further 
development of the Sciences and for their 
application in the widest sense, more atten- 
tion must be paid to them in education. 

We are not to conclude, however, that 
this wide-spread desire for an enlargement 
of the educational fundament at once 
brought about any considerable modifica- 
tion of the school system. This would 
have been impossible for practical reasons 
alone ; for, as pointed out above, properly 
equipped teachers and suitable methods 
for giving instruction in the Natural Sci- 
ences were wanting. There were, besides, 
particularly among pedagogues, violent 
opponents of the new doctrine. Progress 
was, therefore, slow and painful. The 
roots of the old established system had 
penetrated too deep and wide into the life 
and thought of men to be easily loosened. 
Prejudices of long standing are always 
difficult to overcome, and the one great 
prejudice here was that no subject under 
Heaven could be found better adapted to 
develop all the mental faculties than Latin 
and Greek. These had been the chosen 
instruments of each one's own intellectual 
training. What more could the new- 
fangled Sciences offer ? One writer says, 
well reflecting the sentiments of the earlier 
decades of the present century, and possi- 
bly, to some extent at least, even of the 
present day, "The advancing school of 
realism seeks to pour over the soil of solid, 
honest culture all kinds of filthy water 
drawn from the sources of everyday life. 
They fancy this will fertilize that soil, but 
in reality it will diminish, if not forever 
destroy, its fertility." Much has been 
written in the same vein, protesting against 
the admission of the Natural Sciences to 



anything like an equality with the dead 
languages and humanistic studies. We 
sometimes find passages that amuse, rather 
than call for serious comment or thought. 
Witness the following fervid and somewhat 
quaint outpouring : "How can the pupil 
form steady habits of labor and thought, 
if he vibrates day after day between the 
widest extremes — from the golden sayings 
of Pythagoras to the breeds of lizards, 
crocodiles, toads and snakes — from the 
laws of Solon and Lycurgus to baobabs, 
quartzrocks and pebbles, or to the maki 
and orang outang — from the dying words 
of Socrates to the seals, walruses and polar 
bears of the Esquimaux — in short, from 
the conceptions of reason to unreason, 
from the ideals of mankind to the beasts, 
from the sublime and immutable to the 
changeable, common and worthless, which 
gain significance only through the concep- 
tions of reason." 

In the foregoing passage, however fan- 
ciful and exaggerated, one may clearly see 
an expression of the spirit that, ignoring 
the disciplinary value, and depreciating 
the material worth of the results, of Sci- 
ence study, would magnify out of all due 
proportion the importance of the results 
of antique thought and philosophy for our 
present educational purposes. It is that 
same spirit that would, without hesitation, 
arrest the whole material progress of man- 
kind, rather than have one single cherished 
ideal exposed to the "solvent action of 
natural knowledge." It is that same spirit 
that would make the shores of the Med- 
iterranean the limit beyond which human 
thought should never be permitted to 
stray. It is that same spirit that would 
place the human mind in eternal bondage 
to Latin and Greek idealism. Ten centu- 
ries of servitude are not sufificient : the 
articles of indenture must be made bind- 
ing ill perpetuiiin. 

Now, it is well agreed on all hands that 
the civilization of Greece and Rome pre- 
ceded and conditioned the highest civili- 
zation of the present day in the same 
manner that infancy precedes and condi- 
tions childhood, or that childhood precedes 
and conditions manhood ; so that if we 
wish to gain a true knowledge of our own 
civilization, we must study its "embry- 
ology" in the life of the Greeks and 
Romans. True enough, but can not the 
substance of this knowledge — which is the 
essential thing aimed at — be acquired, 
without bringing its shell and framing into 



s 



OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. 



such undue prominence ? Time was, when 
more importance was attached to the 
casing than to its contents. That position 
has now been largely abandoned and a 
retreat has been made within the more 
defensible embryological stronghold. This 
change of base was rendered necessary as 
soon as the modern languages became 
active competitors of the classics as means 
of linguistic discipline. No one wishes to 
repudiate the debt of gratitude which we 
owe to the art, science and literature of 
Greece and Rome. No one denies that a 
study of ancient culture is calculated to 
make us better acquainted with human 
aims, human motives, in short, with human 
nature. But, as Rosenkranz so well re- 
marks, " the danger of humanism is that 
it makes the means into an end, and does 
not provide for a return out of the Latin 
and Greek world to the modern world." 
That the greatest scholars affirm that the 
Greek language is the most graceful and 
perfect means of expressing human 
thought, is no less true than that, at a 
large estimate, only one individual in every 
ten thousand of population will probably 
ever be able to appreciate that discovery. 
It is certain that the ordinary college 
graduate, who, though he may have spent 
as much as four years in the humanizing 
society of the classics, only with the aid 
of lexicon, notes and " ponies " can pain- 
fully extract the sense of his Horace or 
Euripides, alone and unaided would never 
divine that superlative excellence. That 
the nomenclature and terminology of 
most — not all — ^of the arts and sciences 
are based upon the Latin and Greek, is no 
less true than that one might gain a work- 
ing key to the w^hole in six weeks' diligent 
study. To sum up, then, the benefit to be 
derived, in the case of the average student, 
from an extended course in Latin and 
Greek is not at all commensurate with the 
tremendous outlay of time and labor re- 
quired, particularly in view of the attention 
so urgently claimed for many other sub- 
jects of real living interest and importance. 
In considering the position which nature 
study ought to occupy in the general edu- 
cation of the youth, we are confronted 
with a number of questions that have to 
be answered. Wherein lies the essential 
difference between instruction in Natural 
Science and in other branches, most nota- 
bly the dead languages ? In what partic- 
ulars has the former an advantage o\-er 
the latter ? 



We answer, in the first place, in the 
more thorough training of the pupil's 
mind in the methods of inductive reason- 
ing. This special feature and all other 
special disciplinary features of nature in- 
struction have been disclosed only slowly 
and gradually, because the attention of 
men was first directed to a study of the 
Natural Sciences more from practical con- 
siderations than from an appreciation of 
their valuable educational elements. They 
were first taught because of the real appli- 
cation that could be made of them in the 
arts, industries or learned professions. 
Though this is still an element of strength, 
it is now only of secondary moment in 
teaching the Sciences to the youth. The 
leading object is to train the pupil for in- 
dependent thought and action, and above 
all to guide him into those channels of 
moral acting and thinking, where he will 
become what we call a good citizen. 

Let us first consider the training of the 
intellect by nature instruction. It is con- 
fidently asserted by those who have had 
an opportunity of seeing the matter tested, 
that there is no better means for quicken- 
ing the intellectual life and for developing 
the faculties of the youthful mind, particu- 
larly the powers of observation, expression 
and inductive reasoning, than by exercis- 
ing it upon the facts and phenomena of 
Nature. By this means the dormant ener- 
gies of the pupil are best awakened, and 
by this means he is best led to think for 
himself. It seems, in fact, to be the natural 
order of introducing mental food, to pro- 
ceed from what is near the pupil to what 
is further removed from him, from the 
simple to the complex, from the known to 
the unknown. " Any right system of edu- 
cation," says Dr. Carpenter, "takes up the 
faculties in the order of their develop- 
ment, and it is certain that the observing 
faculties are developed before the reason- 
ing ; therefore the training of the observ- 
ing faculties should precede by attention 
to the phenomena of nature." Proper 
instruction in the Natural Sciences pro- 
vides in a graduated, systematic manner 
for this " attention to the phenomena of 
Nature," and it is perfectly clear that this 
is the proper order of presentation, as it 
corresponds more nearly to natural con- 
ditions than does a study of abstract sub- 
jects. " The great peculiarity," says Hux- 
ley, " of scientific training, that in virtue 
of which it can not be replaced by any 
other discipline, whatsoever, is this bring- 



OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. 



ing of the mind directly into contact with 
fact and practising the intellect in the com- 
pletest form of induction." By a training 
exclusively humanistic and classical, the 
mind is exercised chiefly upon imaginary 
premises, while in a study of the Natural 
Sciences, the premises are the real living 
facts of Nature, that must of necessity 
appeal more strongly to the mind, and 
especially to the youthful mind. They 
must perforce arouse a deeper, more lively 
interest, on account of the direct contact 
into which the mind is brought with them. 
It would, therefore, seem probable that an 
exclusive pursuit of abstract studies, ex- 
clusive practise in deductive reasoning, 
must result in laming the inventive faculty, 
must diminish the power of taking the 
initiative in any business or enterprise of 
life. Whewell says that "the operations 
of the rational faculties, if allowed to go 
on without a constant reference to external 
things, can only lead to empty abstraction 
and barren ingenuity." The same philo- 
sophic thinker further e.xplains : " It seems 
^ to me that our study of the mode of dis- 
covering truth ought to be based upon a 
survey of the truths that have been dis- 
covered." 

The next question that arises is, why do 
we particularly need to cultivate inductive 
habits of thought, inductive methods of 
reasoning ? And here again we answer, 
because in the affairs of everyday life, the 
mind must consider just the same kind of 
facts and must reach the same kind of con- 
clusions as in the pursuit of natural knowl- 
edge. In other words, in regulating our 
ordinary affairs we have more often to 
employ inductive than deductive methods 
of reasoning, since, from a number of ob- 
served facts, we have to draw some general 
conclusion ; since from sundry data we 
have to rise from uncertainty to some de- 
cision. That the exclusive study of the 
classics and humanities does not train the 
powers of observation or inductive reason- 
ing, is perfectly clear to any one, who has 
ever given instruction in Natural Science 
to pupils, whose faculties have been prac- 
tised solely in those branches, which in- 
volve chiefly deductive methods. Hence 
the necessity for supplementing classical 
training by discipline in scientific methods 
of work and thought. The defects of our 
present system of instruction are by many 
largely attributed to the ignoring of this 
principle. 

To convince us that our present system 



has defects — and grave ones, too — the most 
superficial observation is entirely ade- 
quate. How else can we account for the 
fact that a certificated and diplomaed 
graduate does not necessarily carry off the 
prize from his less favored uneducated 
competitor ? Henry Clews, the well- 
known New York banker and man of 
affairs, is reported to have publicly stated 
that he would not give employment to a 
college graduate. In holding such an 
opinion of the finished product of higher 
education, Mr. Clews by no means stands 
alone. Numerous other competent judges, 
of wide and ripe experience in human af- 
fairs, are of substantially the same mind. 
What a sad commentary upon the educa- 
tional methods in vogue ! It may well 
give us pause, when a young man, who is 
stamped and marked as liberally educated, 
in seeking employment should be con- 
fronted with the placard — "No college 
graduate need apply." What is there in 
our system, that, in place of fitting a youth 
for the work of life, throws at the very 
outset a stumbling block in the way of his 
advancement ? What are the qualities of 
our youth's alleged education that militate 
against his success ? We answer — to use 
plain language — it is because his training 
has been too theoretical, because it has 
dealt too largely with the abstract, instead 
of with the real, useful and practical. 
Upon investigating his case, we would 
probably discover that some of the most 
precious years of his apprenticeship to our 
system had been spent in pursuit of mate- 
rial, that could not at all be made available 
for his future building. We would proba- 
bly find that his training had been based 
upon educational theories and not upon 
natural conditions. We would probably 
find that the study of the dead languages 
had figured prominently as the ways and 
means of his discipline, while but an insig- 
nificant role had been appointed to those 
branches that teach us our true relation to 
external nature and to human society. 
From whatever sources, in fine, the deficien- 
cies arise, no one can deny that the present 
system of education comes far short of 
accomplishing its mission ; and he who 
shall point out the remedy and cause it to 
be applied, will confer an inestimable 
benefit upon his race. He who shall show 
us how to make education more real and 
not solely ornamental, as are those tall and 
graceful bottles we see in pharmacists' 
windows filled with bright colored liquids, 



10 



OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. 



beautiful in color but possessing no heal- 
ing virtue, will deserve our undying grati- 
tude. He may feel assured of a niche in 
the pedagogical Walhalla, where rest en- 
throned the mighty spirits of dead heroes — 
Comenius, Pestalozzi, Froebel, Huxley — 

" The dead but sceptered sovereigns, 
Who still rule our spirits from their urns." 

In discussing the merits of the two great 
divisions of human knowledge — the hu- 
manistic and classical and the scientific — 
for purposes of instruction in the schools, 
the comparative value of the positive 
knowledge to be gained has always, and 
rightly too, played a prominent, though 
not the chief role. The moral and intel- 
lectual discipline has been properly con- 
sidered of paramount importance. But 
since the faculties of the mind can not be 
trained without using some branch of 
knowledge as the means, the acquirement 
of some information, of some body of 
knowledge, is unavoidable. Now, upon 
comparing the value of a knowledge of 
the dead languages with the value of scien- 
tific information for the great majority of 
pupils, it will hardly be found that the 
advantage lies upon the side of the former. 
It will scarcely be argued that a knowledge 
of Latin and Greek can be of much service 
in most lines of business or trade ; in only 
a few of the learned professions, indeed, 
will it be of considerable import. The day 
is now long passed since Latin — and still 
longer since Greek — was the common 
language of Science and Philosophy 
throughout the civilized world. Although 
the terminology of many departments of 
human knowledge abounds in Latin and 
Greek prefixes, suffixes and roots, yet is it 
easy for one who could not construe a 
single line of Caesar or Xenophon, to gain 
a complete understanding of the signifi- 
cance of the terms. To require a lawyer 
or a physician, for example, to learn Latin 
so that he might understand the meaning 
of the Latin words and phrases, that occur 
in his professional literature, would be but 
little more reasonable than to expect a 
musician to learn the Italian language so 
that he might comprehend the meaning 
of piafio, forte, andante and other Italian 
words that appear upon music scores. In 
this connection a modern French writer 
on educational subjects suggests the pro- 
priety of restoring the Latin language to 
its former position as " the language of the 
learned," particularly as the medium for 



scientific communications. While not de- 
nying the possibility of such a renascence, 
we may fairly doubt its probability. Some 
one has suggested that the only hope of 
succeeding in such an enterprise lies in the 
possibility of applying to the solution of 
the problem, the well-known physical prin- 
ciple, according to which, different forms 
of energy are interconvertible. If the 
heat of classical champions could be con- 
verted into electrical energy, the latter 
might suffice to galvanize the ancient Latin 
corpse into making some kind of spas- 
modic movements bearing a remote resem- 
blance to those of a living body. The 
distinguished Frenchman has evidently 
forgotten that "the mill will never grind 
with the water that has passed." 

Turning our attention, on the other 
hand, to the value of natural knowledge, 
it would be difficult to mention an occu- 
pation in which its possession would not 
be of direct and positive value. The pur- 
suit of such knowledge has led to all the 
marvelous inventions and discoveries, to 
the great progress in commerce and indus- 
try, of modern times. " Scientific thought,", 
says Kingdon Clifford, " is not an accom- 
paniment or condition of human progress, 
but human progress itself." Every branch 
of manufacture, every kind of human in- 
dustry, rests upon scientific knowledge and 
is carried on according to scientific prin- 
ciples. Empirical knowledge and "rules 
of thumb " no longer suffice for success ; 
and he who neglects the indications of 
scientific investigation in the prosecution 
of his business or profession will inevitably 
be left behind in the race of life. Huxley 
warns us that " in an age of artillery, we can 
not continue to send our boys into battle 
armed with the sword and shield of a gladi- 
ator." In the work of life, we have to deal 
with the facts and forces of Nature, if we 
would escape being ground to dust ; and 
in direct proportion as we recognize its 
laws and make our actions conform thereto, 
will we be likely to succeed. 

Instruction in Natural Science, in addi- 
tion to its value for intellectual training 
and for utilitarian purposes, has, further, a 
moral element of prime worth. It is gen- 
erally acknowledged that all instruction, 
of whatever character, should tend towards 
and have as its final object the promotion 
of morals ; that it should make the pupil 
an active, thinking, upright member of 
society ; that it should awaken a lasting 
and a broad interest in, and a many-sided 



OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. 



11 



sympathy with, Nature as well as with 
human life. The advocates of Science 
teaching believe that a study of Nature 
will best accomplish this ; they believe 
with the poet that, 

" One impulse from a vernal wood 
May teach you more of man. 
Of moral evil and of good. 
Than all the sages can." 

— Wordsworth. 

Now, it is claimed on the part of those 
who favor humanistic studies, that they 
lead a pupil to an understanding of human 
things and to a sympathy with men. But, 
as so often remarked, we can not properly 
study man apart from his surroundings in 
nature. We need, then, to supplement the 
humanities by using means that will ac- 
complish the same thing for man with 
reference to external nature, that the 
humanities do for him with reference to 
man. The mission, in short, of Natural 
Science instruction in this respect, is to 
bring man to a sound knowledge of his 
true position in nature. The pupil must 
be brought to recognize the earnestness of 
the teachings of nature. "The laws of 
Nature," says Oersted, " are the thoughts 
of God." "A physical fact is as sacred as 
a moral principle. Our own nature de- 
mands from us this double allegiance," 
remarks Agassiz. This high ethical value 
of science instruction springs from the fact 
that the Natural Sciences are founded on 
truth, as well as the human intellect can 
comprehend it, and promote it as no other 
branch can. All moral acting and think- 
ing, that have any rational foundation, 
must be based upon a recognition of man's 
true position in nature. Our conceptions, 
therefore, of what is right and of what is 
wrong will approximate the truth in direct 
proportion to ihe correctness of our knowl- 
edge of nature's plan with reference to 
man. When nature studies are properly 
taught, the pupil always finds therein new 
sources for energetic effort of thought, 
and a sound criterion and basis for apply- 
ing thought to other sets of circumstances 
in life, as regards not only the phenomena 
of nature but also of social and political 
life. "There is one moral benefit which 
the pursuit of science unquestionably be- 
stows. It keeps the estimate of the value 
of evidence up to the proper mark. We 
are constantly receiving lessons — and 
sometimes very sharp ones, too — on the 
nature of proof." 



The function of science teaching is to 
develop all the faculties of the mind that 
are at all required for a study of Nature ; 
to inspire with a sympathy for whatever 
has been found out by such study ; and to 
bring man into harmonious relation with 
all external creation. But this is not all. 
It is also capable of striking those chords 
that bind man to man and of making them 
vibrate in unison. To show its humanizing 
influence, its efficacy in shaping the mo- 
tives and purposes of its votaries, we might 
quote the words of one of its greatest 
apostles concerning his own aim in life : 
"To promote the increase of natural 
knowledge, and to forward the application 
of scientific methods of investigation to 
all the problems of life to the best of my 
ability, in the conviction, which has grown 
with my growth and strengthened with my 
strength, that there is no alleviation for 
the sufferings of mankind except veracity 
of thought and of action, and the resolute 
facing of the world as it is when the gar- 
ment of make-believe, by which pious 
hands have hidden its uglier features, is 
stripped off.'' Here we find the expression 
of an ideal that will compare favorably 
with some of more ancient lineage. The 
goal of the greatest investigators of nature 
has ever been of an unselfish character — 
the attainment of truth for its own sake and 
for the sake of what it could do for their 
fellow-men. They have ever believed that 
the truth, and the truth alone, could make 
the human race free, free from physical 
suffering no less than from moral deform- 
ity. Animated with this hope they have 
labored without rest and without reward, 
reflecting nothing but honor upon their 
race, while the fruits of their labors have 
fallen upon their fellow-men like a gentle 
rain from Heaven, always blessing never 
harming. "The history of empire is that 
of the misery of men ; the history of the 
sciences is that of their grandeur and 
happiness." 

We hold, then, that the Natural Sciences 
when properly taught exercise the mental 
faculties of pupils, training them in accu- 
rate observation, correct expression and 
sound reasoning ; that they give valuable 
information, which can be made available 
for the purposes of ordinary life ; and, 
further, that they mould the pupil's moral 
nature, giving an earnestness and arousing 
an energizing, vitalizing interest in the 
affairs of life, which must have a steadying 
and preserving action upon the character 



OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. 



amidst the vicissitudes and disturbing ele- 
ments of our earthly existence. They 
must gradually attain to that position in 
educational matters, which corresponds to 
the influence they have had and still exer- 
cise upon the general welfare of mankind. 
As Bacon says, " they will teach us to think 
how to live, instead of living only to think ; 
and not to inflate plain things into marvels, 
but to reduce marvels to plain things." 
We can not believe that through either 
prejudice or ignorance the present assess- 
ment of educational values will long hold 
good. No valid reason can be brought 
forward why less time should be devoted 
to nature studies than to other branches. 
And we may safely say that the time will 
come when dead educational timber of 
every description — classical as well as 
other kinds — will be lopped off and cast 
into the oven ; when moribund trees of 
knowledge, that have long since ceased to 
bear good fruit, will be hewn down to make 
room for living stocks ; when the tradi- 
tional and partly fictitious lustre of the 
classics will grow pale as the Sun of Sci- 
ence rises ; and when a knowledge of the 
living truths of nature will become the 
common property of mankind. But from 
the very nature of the problem, progress 
ih this direction will, and must, be slow. 
The methods of giving nature instruction 
must first be improved and adapted to 
existing conditions. As soon as this is 
accomplished the Sciences will, in an easy 
and unconstrained manner, enter the very 
lowest grades of the school and continue 
their incomparable missionary work of 
naturalizing, civilizing and humanizing the 
race. Their salutary influence will then 
be felt throughout the mass of mankind. 
We need not cherish the time-honored but 
utterly senseless fear that the light of 
Science will show us something we ought 
not to see. 



Mr. L. E. Armstrong ('94), is at present 
principal of the Rawlins, Wyoming, High 
School, and Mr. Charles Brookover, of the 
same class, is principal of the Madison, 
Kansas, public schools. The latter has 
also been engaged to do some work in the 
county institutes of his adopted state. 

Professor H. R.«Higley ('92), has been 
teaching during the fall in Warwick, N.Y. 
In January, '90, he will take his place as a 
member of the Faculty of one of the Penn- 
sylvania State Normal Schools. 



Editorial Notes* 



A Student's Recital, was given in the 
College Chapel, Tuesday, November 12, 
at 8 o'clock, p. M., with the following pro- 
gramme : 

Overture, " Der Freiscliuetz,'' Wel>€r 

Misses Inez Riddile, Grace Gist, Lulu Browne and 
Florence Craig. 

" Night in Spring," Boim 

Miss Bertha Hoover. 

Polka, op. Ill . . Spindler 

Miss Mamie O'Bleness. 

"I Know a Bank," Horn 

Misses Florence Craig and Kate Crawford. 

Song to the Evening Star, from Tannhauser, Wagner-Listz 

Miss Grace Reah. 

" Garden of Sleep," DeLara 

Mr. Charles O'Bleness. 

Fantasia in C Schafftr 

Misses Ada Pickett and Mary Pickett. 

Part n. 

Ladies' Chorus, " Ave Maria," . . . Marchetti 

Ballet music from Feramors, . . , Ruhenstein 

Misses Inez Riddile and Estella Hobson. 

"Then Would I Die," To^ti 

Miss Fannie Witman. 

a. Nocturne, G Major, Chopin 

b. Allegro, Sonate op. 2, No. 2, . . . Sefthoven 

Miss Inez Riddile. 

" Amore," Pinsuti 

Misses Grace Gist and Dolly Gist. 

Gondoleria, Liszt 

Miss Florence Craig. 

" Tlie Last Rose of Summer," . . . Schehlemann 

Messrs. Newman Bennett, Clarence Henson, Roy 

Clayton and Ralph Super. 



It is impracticable to fix a date at this 
time for the opening of the summer term, 
'96, but it will probably be the last week 
in June. It will continue si.x weeks and 
the tuition will be five dollars for the 
entire term, or one dollar per week for 
less. This will embrace most of the sub- 
jects taught in the Preparatory Depart- 
ment, except those that will require the 
use of the laboratory. For collegiate 
students the charge will be from five to 
ten dollars for each branch, in addition to 
a small fee for material used in the labo- 
ratories. Intending students are requested 
to write to Professor Dunkle, who will 
furnish definite information. The attend- 
ance during '95 was nearly one hundred, 
and all report themselves thoroughly 
satisfied with the work done. 



OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. 



13 



The following recital was given by the 
Department of Elocution, at the City- 
Hall, Monday evening, November 25, 
1895, at 8 o'clock: 

RECITATIONS. 
From, '^ Tempted by the Devil," . A. Covan Doyle 

Gho. W. Bkown. 
'' The Cross-roads' Ghost," . LippincotCs Magazine 

Charlotte R. Kaler. 
From, " The Birds' Christmas Carol, "An/^ Z>(?w^/o.'^ Wiffgin 

Esther H. Burns. 
From, "A Rose of the Mire," . . . Kate Jordan 

Della M. Connett. 
The School Exhibition, . , . Original Adaptation 

Mabel L. Wickham. 
P'rom, '• The Madonna of the Tubs," Elizabeth. S. Plielps 

Maud M. McGkath. 

Athletics for College Men, . Channcey M. Depei'j 

Wm. A. Dailey. 

INTERMISSION. 
Drama — " The Ugliest of Seven," . From the German 

CAST OF CHARACTERS. 
Ernest Hellwald, .... Chas, O'Bleness 
Jeremiah Ambrose. .... Geo. W. Brown 

Ernestine, Minnie O. Roach 

Rosa, Kate Crawford 

Elise, Esther H. Burns 

Gabkielle, ..... Mabel L. Wickham 

Amelia, Florence M. Craig 

Dora,. . . . . Pearl Roberts 

Adelaide, Chorlotte R. Kaler 

Madame Moorpiltz, Nellie Cobb 

Madame Kunkel, Lena Hatfield 

Madame Mousetooth, Della M. Connett 

Peasants. _ 



One of our sister institutions is sending 
out the following announcement : 

"This college now affords its students 
advantages in rhetoric which few other 
colleges offer. Personal consultation is 
held with every Freshman and Soph- 
more upon every essay written. An essay 
is required each week from every man in 
each of these classes. Each essay 
receives careful written criticism from the 
instructor. This criticism consists in the 
correction of all faults in grammar, spell- 
ing, punctuation, sentence structure and 
paragraphing, and in addition a carefully 
formulated general criticism on the entire 
essay, indicating what faults are most 
prominent, and what the student should 
do to amend these faults. The instructor 
then goes over the essay in private with 
the student, points out to him where he is 
strong and where he is weak, and advises 
him what methods he should pursue in 
composition." 

This is an excellent way of teaching 
rhetoric and composition, as we can tes- 
tify, for we have been pursuing it for sev- 
eral years. We are glad of the opportu- 
nity of endorsing it. We do not require 



an essay every week, but we continue our 
instruction as long as the pupil needs it, 
which is not unfrequently to the end of 
his course. We are glad to see other 
colleges doing as we have been doing, for 
this is the only way, as our teachers have 
found by a careful study of the problem, 
of making the study of English composi- 
tion profitable. We have been of the 
opinion for some time that one of our 
shortcomings is our modesty in proclaim- 
ing our merit. 



Now and then one comes across a col- 
lege graduate who finds fault with his 
abnii mater for his lack of success in life. 
It can not be too often repeated that the 
mere possession of knowledge is no guar- 
anty of prosperity. It is indeed the key to 
success, but nothing more. He who 
depends solely upon an education to 
secure position for him is almost sure to 
be disappointed. Some of the greatest 
scholars have been failures because they 
did not know how to make use of their 
intellectual attainments. The chief ele- 
ment of success is the willingness to meet 
the conditions upon which it depends. 
The world has need of efficient young 
men and women, but it is not willing to 
accept them at their own estimate of 
themselves. There is no danger that our 
young people will get too much educa- 
tion ; there is danger that they will 
depend too much on mere knowledge 
where other qualities and attainments are 
equally important. 



It is expected that an additional teacher 
of music will be added to this department 
in the University. It has become evident 
that an instructor for wind and stringed 
instruments would have plenty of pupils. 



Thos. L. Young (B. S. '95), has been 
appointed to a responsible position in con- 
nection with the electric light plant at East 
Liverpool, Ohio. Mr. Young is well quali- 
fied intellectually for such a place and 
when he takes hold he does so with the 
determination to succeed. 



14 



OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. 



Personal Notes* 



Professor Boughton is one of the trus- 
tees of the Beta Theta Pi fraternity. 

I. M. Foster (B. Ph. '95), is at present 
a student in the Harvard Law School. 

Mr. E. E. Baker ('94), is now superin- 
tendent of the Mount Sterling Schools. 

Mr. C. J. Lane, of the same class, is in 
the employ of the Edison Company at 
Cincinnati. 

W. P. Collier (B. A. '95), has returned 
to his alma mater and is doing post-gradu- 
ate work in Greek. 

Mr. H. H. Fuller ('78), died at Athens, 
Ohio, where he was temporarily residing, 
on the 18th of October. 

There will be six local contestants from 
whom is to be selected the representative 
of the college at the state contest. 

The Rev. Dr. Iliff ('70), was elected 
Chaplain-in-Chief at the recent encamp- 
ment of the G. A. R. in Louisville. 

The widely known Dr. S. A. Keene, who 
died recently at Delaware, received the 
degree of D. D. from the O. U. in 1886. 

Mr. F. M. McAdams, who holds a cer- 
tificate from the Electrical Department, is 
in charge of the Light and Power Plant at 
the Reform Farm. 

Professor Atkinson's article, " Oppor- 
tunities in Electrical Engineering," that 
first appeared in Electricity, has been copied 
in several scientific periodicals. 

Professor John A. Shott ('92), of Car- 
thage, III., has a well written article in the 
November number of Education entitled, 
"Ethical Tendencies of Science Studj^" 

The students of the class in electrical 
engineering have formed themselves into 
an Electrical Society and have elected 
A. L. Kindt, President, and E. J. Chute, 
Secretary. 

Professor Gordy was engaged in doing 
institute work in several counties of Penn- 
sylvania during the fall term. He has 
more calls of a similar nature than he can 
accept. The first volume of his " History 
of Political Parties in the United States" 
has been adopted by the Ohio Teachers' 
Reading Circle, and is meeting with a 
ready sale elsewhere. 



Professor Evans was recently elected 
president of the S. E. O. Teachers' Asso- 
ciation for the coming year. This associ- 
ation is composed of the following coun- 
ties : Athens, Gallia, Hockin'^, Meigs, 
Perry, Vinton and Washington. 

President Super was one of the hon- 
orary pall-bearers at the funeral of the late 
H. S. Bundy. It is not yet known when 
the Governor will appoint his successor in 
the trusteeship. Of the seventeen mem- 
bers now serving on the Board eleven are 
alumni or former students of O. U. 

Hon. H. S. Bundy died at Wellston on 
the 12th of December. He had been a 
trustee of the O. U. since 1864 For more 
than fifty years he was one of the promi- 
nent men of the state. Tliough deprived 
of almost all educational opportunities in 
early life, he in time acquired a large fund 
of information of a practical kind. He 
took a deep interest in education, and was 
never absent from a meeting of the Board 
except when unavoidably detained. He 
enjoyed the esteem alike of rich and poor, 
old and young. At the time of his death 
he was in his seventy-ninth year. 



Book Notices* 



From Ginn & Co. we have received 
Frye's Complete Geography. 

This is a volume of some 200 pages, beautifully 
illustrated with excellent wood cuts, maps ancl 
charts. Unlike many manuals of Geography, it 
begins with the earth as the abode of man, and not 
with the earth in space. A good deal of attention 
is given, very wisely, we think, to matters usually 
relegated to the domain of physical geography. 
The permanent features of the earth's surface are 
most fully set forth, while the political divisions 
receive less attention. We have rarely seen a book 
on the subject of which this treats that has, on the 
whole, impressed us so favorably. 

From the American Book Company we 
have to acknowledge the receipt of Latin 
Lessons, b}' E. W. Coy. 

Traumerei an franzoesischen Kaminen, 
Herr Omnia, and several volumes of Eclec- 
tic School Readings. 

These readings are intended for pupils of the 
tirst, second, and third reader grade, and are well 
adapted to their intended purpose. The style is 
excellent, the matter interesting and profitable, 
both from the ethical and historical standpoint. 
The make-up of the volumes is fully abreast of the 
high standa- d of ' xcellence which characterizes 
the publications of 'he Company. Lack of space 
forbids a fuller noiice in this issue of the Bulletin. 



OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. 15 



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